Live chat sex albania

Other push factors were the political crisis and the sharp increase in unemployment after 1990, with the closing down and shrinkage of State industries and administration all over the country (World Bank ).After the ending of their compulsory participation in the labor market enforced under communist rule, and the revival of patriarchal traits of society, women’s economic activity declined particularly severely (INSTAT ).We test this model in the case of Albania, which has experienced a rapid catch up in urbanization and large-scale emigration since the end of communist rule in 1990 (Carletto et al. We focus on how the spatio-temporal diffusion of rural-to-urban and international migrations has been mediated by the economic and political hierarchy of cities, and by the gendered patterns and interlinkages of the two flows.The first two sections provide an overview of the Albanian context to set the scene for the country’s post-communist mobility transition.The interactions between the processes of urbanization and international migration in less developed and transition countries have important repercussions for socioeconomic development, but are not well understood.

Results reveal an immediate onset of large-scale rural exodus, despite the post-communist crisis.Urbanization driven by rural-to-urban migration sustains socioeconomic development in less developed and transition countries through agglomeration economies and improved access to public services (World Bank ), sustained outflows may drain a country’s labor force and development potential.These internal and international movements (hereafter also referred to as out-/in-migration and e-/immigration, respectively) have been studied intensively but independently from each other, and mainly in rural areas.In particular, it is not clear whether we should expect reduced pressure for international migration as rapid development draws rural migrants into domestic cities, or whether international migration is a complement to or substitute for the rural-to-urban flows which have characterized so many developing contexts.These issues are most specifically addressed in the hypothesis of a mobility transition (Skeldon ).

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